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Jul 21 2017

Global Health #global #health, #disease #prevention, #national #security, #public #health, #disease #detection, #disease #prevention, #disease

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Global Health

Goal

Improve public health and strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies.

Overview

The health of the U.S. population can be affected by public health threats or events across the globe. Recent examples of this include the Ebola Virus outbreak that began in 2014, the 2003 SARS epidemic, and the 2009 spread of novel H1N1 influenza. Improving global health can improve health in the United States and support national and global security interests by fostering political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.

Why Is Global Health Important?

Global health plays an increasingly crucial role in both global security and the security of the U.S. population. As the world and its economies become increasingly globalized, including extensive international travel and commerce, it is necessary to think about health in a global context. Rarely a week goes by without a headline about the emergence or re-emergence of an infectious disease or other health threat somewhere in the world. The 2007 World Health Report 1 notes that, “since the 1970s, newly emerging diseases have been identified at the unprecedented rate of one or more per year.” The Institute of Medicine’s 2003 report Microbial Threats to Health 2 stresses that the United States should enhance the global capacity for responding to infectious disease threats and should take a leadership role in promoting a comprehensive, global, real-time infectious disease surveillance system.

Rapid identification and control of emerging infectious diseases helps:

  • Promote health abroad
  • Prevent the international spread of disease
  • Protect the health of the U.S. population

The large scope of potential global public health threats is recognized in the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) 3 with its all-hazards approach to assessing serious public health threats. These regulations are designed to prevent the international spread of diseases, while minimizing interruption of world travel and trade. They encourage countries to work together to share information about known diseases and public health events of international concern.

Related Topic Areas

Understanding Global Health

How does the United States help improve global health?

Many U.S. Government (USG) agencies provide funding, human resources, and technical support to global health initiatives including:

The United States cooperates with other countries to address priority public health issues and prepare for and respond to emerging and pandemic diseases. In February 2010, the United States announced a new Global Health Initiative. which invests $63 billion over 6 years to help partner countries improve health outcomes, with a particular focus on improving the health of women, newborns, and children. In 2014, the Obama Administration launched the Global Health Security Agenda to accelerate progress toward a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats. As part of the Global Health Security Agenda, USG agencies are harnessing $5 billion to address Ebola preparedness overseas and at home, and are also working with other nations building capacity needed to prevent, detect, and respond to other infectious disease threats.

How does improved global health help the United States?

U.S. investments in improving health in developing countries provide significant public health benefits within the United States. Many global health issues can directly or indirectly impact the health of the United States. Outbreaks of infectious diseases, foodborne illnesses, or contaminated pharmaceuticals and other products, cannot only spread from country to country, but also impact trade and travel. The United States can also learn from the experiences of other countries. Standard health measures of life expectancy and chronic disease, including depression among adults, can be compared to other Organization for Economic and Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. For those countries with better health outcomes than the United States, health agencies within the United States can use these comparisons to identify ways to improve the Nation’s public health.

Emerging Issues in Global Health

Globally, the rate of deaths from noncommunicable causes, such as heart disease, stroke, and injuries, is growing. At the same time, the number of deaths from infectious diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, and vaccine-preventable diseases, is decreasing. Many developing countries must now deal with a “dual burden” of disease: they must continue to prevent and control infectious diseases, while also addressing the health threats from noncommunicable diseases and environmental health risks. As social and economic conditions in developing countries change and their health systems and surveillance improve, more focus will be needed to address noncommunicable diseases, mental health, substance abuse disorders, and, especially, injuries (both intentional and unintentional). Some countries are beginning to establish programs to address these issues. For example, Kenya has implemented programs for road traffic safety and violence prevention.





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